Flipped Classroom

Summary of the Discussion Forum by Tia Ramos

Thread 1: What topics work best for the flipped classroom?

Subjects that involve psychomotor skills work well with the flipped classroom as suggested by the above participant’s subject matter expertise. To effectively use a flipped classroom, in-class activity must be done face to face while homework activity (out-of-class) is usually done at home with most common flipped classroom models. Lab techniques, role-playing, case studies, demonstration, games, simulations, experiments, community projects and many more are well suited for the flipped classroom concept.

One common theme that continually came up in this thread was “How do you get your students to do the assigned homework?” A flipped classroom would be not be effective if your students showed up knowing nothing while the instructor started the group activity and learners had no clue what was going on. Evidence-based on-line research shows homework that is required to be handed in the next day would confirm to the instructor the student has done the required homework. It could be formal or informal assessment. Homework assignments based from closed-ended problem solving questions would eliminate any frustration or anxiety. Even a reflective journal assignment would show higher levels of thinking about the subject matter. These low-stakes formative assessment tools can make your flipped classroom a success. Prior to starting the in-class activity, the instructor can use CAT’s such as the Minute Paper or what is the Muddiest Point to assess any misunderstandings of concepts and reiterate any potential errors.

Thread 2: Research to Support the Flipped Classroom.

flipped classrooms are trending in the education world but unfortunately flipped classrooms lack the scholarly research to prove its effectiveness. There are many things to consider about before planning your flipped lesson. Some of the things an instructor needs to consider are:

  • Will the learners do their assigned out-of-class homework readings?
  • Do the learners have proper functioning computer hardware that can download video content?
  • Do the learners have reliable internet service in which they can view the on-line video content?
  • Does the instructor have 2-3 hours of extracurricular time outside of their classrooms to create a video for the flipped classroom?
  • Does the instructor need to relearn how to make a digital video and will there be a learning curve?
  • Will all participants speak their voice in the group activity? Will all learning styles be addressed in the group activity?
  • Don’t flip all your classes.

Research Links to Support the Flipped Classroom:
ASCD.org http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar13/vol70/num06/Evidence-on-Flipped-Classrooms-Is-Still-Coming-In.aspx
Research Network http://researchnetwork.pearson.com/wp-content/uploads/execsummary_flippedlearnig.pdf
University of Wisconsin http://www.uwosh.edu/stemlab/flipped-classroom/benefits-of-a-flipped-classroom
http://panopto.com/blog/7-unique-flipped-classroom-models-right/
http://panopto.com/blog/blended-learning-hybrid-learning-flipped-classroom-whats-difference/
http://www.flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/41/HigherEdWhitePaper%20FINAL.pdf
https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/teaching-tips/assessing-student-work/grading-and-feedback/promoting-effective-participation
http://www.studiesuccesho.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/flipped-classroom-artikel.pdf
http://www.wxii12.com/news/is-flipped-classroom-the-future/28316724Blooms taxonomy http://catlintucker.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Blooms-with-notes.png
https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/teaching-tips/assessing-student-work/grading-and-feedback/promoting-effective-participation
https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/teaching-tips/lecturing-and-presenting/delivery/on-line-activities-and-assessment-flipped-classroom
http://blog.peerinstruction.net/2013/06/20/two-magical-tools-to-get-your-students-to-do-and-learn-from-pre-class-work-in-a-flipped-classroom/
http://neatoday.org/2013/03/29/what-flipped-classrooms-can-and-cant-do-for-education/
http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199212064.001.0001/acref-9780199212064
http://www.wastatepta.org/resources/kids_school/dictionary.pdf
http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/
http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2010/04/getting-students-to-do-the-reading-pre-class-reading-quizzes-using-blogs/
http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-student/keys-studying-better-840132.html

Thread 3: Seven Things You Should Know about Flipped Classrooms

1. What is it? The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed.
2. How does it work? There is no single model for the flipped classroom – the term is widely used to describe almost any class structure that provides pre-recorded lectures followed by in-class exercise.
3. Who’s doing it? Flipped classrooms are trending. The word flipped classroom is a buzz word and everyday a growing number of higher education individual faculty are flipping their classes.
4. Why is it significant? By allocating more time to in-class activities, instructors have more of an opportunity to detect misunderstandings in concepts. Collaborative projects also fosters social interaction amongst students, allowing them to learn from each other and getting support from their peers.
5. What are the downsides? An effective flip requires careful preparation. Digital video lectures take time to create and there is a learning curve to learn if the instructor is new to creating videos. Students complain about the loss of face-to-face lectures and don’t appreciate the value of the hands-on portion of the flipped classroom. Students may skip class as they feel they only need to watch video content to pass the class. They are missing out on the higher thinking processes that the in-class activity fosters.
6. Where is it going? Technology is moving faster than education. New tools such as powerful mobile devices will put a wider range of rich, educational resources into the hands of students, at times and places that are most convenient for them. These new tools will support the out-of-class portion of flipped classrooms.
7. What are the implications for teaching and learning? The flipped classroom is student centered which puts more of the responsibility for learning on the student. Self-directed learning occurs.

What did I get from this discussion

I like the simplicity of this video in the way it explains what Flipped Classroom are and its benefits:

Why I flipped my Classroom

Basically everything I know today about Flipped Classroom I learned it from this discussion forum and the research I did to participate in this forum. However, I really had in mind to start blended courses to teach French with the idea that the time in the classroom would be dedicated to practice only. As I mentioned in the forum, I have a Beginner 3 course that is dedicated to practice only. The way I organized this course is actually the principle of a flipped classroom. This course is meant to provide an opportunity to the students to practice what they have learned in Beg 1 and Beg 2 (because they do a lot of grammar during these two first courses and they don’t have enough time for practice). In the Beg 3, every week, I give them a list of what they have to review, a list of new vocabulary and a text or online conversations they can listen to. They have to come to the next course ready to be able to participate in conversations themselves and the course in class is dedicated to role play activity. So I guess, I can say now that I have been using the flipped classroom technique without knowin it.

I didn’t have any solution to solve the problem of the students coming to the course unprepared. Now I know that it is a good idea to give them some assignment. Although, I have been telling them to learn the new vocabulary and I use different CATs to test them every time. I also ask them to write a conversation if they want and I make sure I always correct it. It doesn’t seem to be enough though. I believe that, more than anything, what motivates students to come to class ready is not to have to feel embarassed when they have to work with other students in the classroom. Also, the idea of quizzes about the video that the learners have to use to learn at home is great.

Even though I have been more or less using this technique, I was not aware of all the benefits. I really believe that it can help learners to learn in a more efficient and effective way. Teachers can identify what was not learned or understood properly at an individual level.

I had never reflect on the fact that “in terms of Bloom’s revised taxonomy (2001), this [FC] means that students are doing the lower levels of cognitive work (gaining knowledge and comprehension) outside of class, and focusing on the higher forms of cognitive work (application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation) in class, where they have the support of their peers and instructor.”  (Brame, C. Flipping  the  Classroom)

I am not concerned about the fact that preparing a video will take more time. I think that, as intructors, we all try to prepare our courses as well as we can that will be part of it. I don’t quite understand why it has to be a video. I believe that there are other ways to prepare the course for students to study at home.

I don’t believe that this technique can be used with any students. It is not possible for anybody to study by himself/herself. Many reasons for that, the first one is not knowing how to study, not having the discipline (because we haven’t been taught), etc. It is even more important to teach our student how to learn and the different “stages” or kinds of FC are very interesting to keep in mind in order to help learners become independant learners (http://panopto.com/blog/7-unique-flipped-classroom-models-right/):

1. The standard inverted classroom: Students are assigned the “homework” of watching video lectures and reading any materials relevant to the next day’s class. During class time, students practice what they’ve learned through traditional schoolwork, with their teachers freed up for additional one-on-one time.

2. The Discussion-Oriented Flipped Classroom: Class time is then devoted to discussion and exploration of the subjec — this is useful in subjects where context matters, e.g. English and history

3. The Demonstration-Focused Flipped Classroom: Especially for those subjects that require students to remember and repeat activities exactly — think chemistry, physics, and just about every math class

4. The Faux-Flipped Classroom  (useful for early-stage learners) has those students watch lecture video in class — giving them the opportunity to review materials at their own pace, with the teacher able to move from student to student to offer whatever individual support each young learner needs.

5. The Group-Based Flipped Classroom –  The shift happens when students come to class, where they team up to work together on that day’s assignment.

6. The Virtual Flipped Classroom: No real class time. simply require students to attend office hours or other regularly scheduled time for brief one-on-one instruction based on that individual student’s needs.

7. Flipping The Teacher: Students too can make use of video to better demonstrate proficiency. Assign students to their record practice role-play activities to show competency, or ask each to film themselves presenting a new subject or skill as a means to “teach the teacher”.

Resources

360 Education Solutions. Disadvantages of a Flipped Classroom. http://www.360-edu.com/commentary/disadvantages-of-a-flipped-classroom.htm#.VDMeqFec671
 All Nurses. Keys to Studying Better Using your Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Talents. http://allnurses.com/general-nursing-student/keys-studying-better-840132.html
 Centre for Teaching and Learning. What is the Flipped Classroom? http://ctl.utexas.edu/teaching/flipping-a-class/what
 Family Dictionary Education Terms. http://www.wastatepta.org/resources/kids_school/dictionary.pdf
 Henderson, M. Using the Socratic Method in a Flipped Classroom. http://wp.vcu.edu/mehenderson/2013/05/10/using-the-socratic-method-in-a-flipped-classroom/
 Image. The Flipped Classroom. In Class. Out of Class. http://ctl.utexas.edu/sites/default/files/flippedgraphic%28web1100px%29_0.png
 Image. Flipped Learning, http://mossfreestone.com/files/2012/08/flippedclassroom-15va7mp.jpg
 Knewton. The Flipped Classroom. http://www.knewton.com/flipped-classroom/
 Oxford Reference. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199212064.001.0001/acref-9780199212064
 Panopto. Blended Learning, Hybrid Learning, and Flipped Classrooms. What’s the difference? http://panopto.com/blog/blended-learning-hybrid-learning-flipped-classroom-whats-difference/
 Ramos, T. Flipped Classrooms are Trending. http://604talesofteaching.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/flipped-classrooms-are-trending/
 Scientific Psychic. Anatomy and Structure of Human Sense Organs. http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm
 Seven Things You should Know about Flipped Classrooms, http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf
 Teach Thought. 10 Common Misconceptions about the Flipped Classroom. http://www.teachthought.com/trends/10-common-misconceptions-flipped-classroom/
 TED: Khan, S. Let’s Use Video to Reinvent Education. http://www.ted.com/talks/salman_khan_let_s_use_video_to_reinvent_education?language=en
 The Flipped Classroom https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ojiebVw8O0g
 University of Waterloo. Promoting Effective Classroom Participation. https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/teaching-tips/assessing-student-work/grading-and-feedback/promoting-effective-participation
 University of Waterloo. On-line Activities and Assessment for the Flipped Classroom. https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/teaching-tips/lecturing-and-presenting/delivery/on-line-activities-and-assessment-flipped-classroom
 Vanderbilt University. Getting your Students to do the Reading. Using Pre-Class Reading Quizzes Using Blogs. http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2010/04/getting-students-to-do-the-reading-pre-class-reading-quizzes-using-blogs

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